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Treatment of the Fluoroquinolone-Associated Disability: The Pathobiochemical Implications
Krzysztof Michalak,1,2 Aleksandra Sobolewska-Włodarczyk,3 Marcin Włodarczyk,3 Justyna Sobolewska,4 Piotr Woźniak,4 and Bogusław Sobolewski4
erwähnen die Autoren PQQ als potentielle Behandlungsmöglichkeit des FC induzierten Syndroms:
Supporting the mitochondrial replication in the cell—pulling more damage to apoptosis and proliferation of the more healthy ones: supporting the mitochondrial exchange (removing that destroyed ones and replication of that more healthy ones) is the necessary way in the case of irreversible mtDNA damage. The substance that is postulated to possess the ability to promote the mitochondrial biogenesis is pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) [107, 108]. This substance is also postulated to be OS protective
PQQ kann in der Tat die mitochondriale Biogenesis fördern.
Artikel von Dr.Michalzik:
Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis through cAMP Response Element-binding Protein Phosphorylation and Increased PGC-1α Expression*
Winyoo Chowanadisai‡, Kathryn A. Bauerly‡, Eskouhie Tchaparian§, Alice Wong¶, Gino A. Cortopassi‖ and Robert B. Rucker‡,
Bioactive compounds reported to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis are linked to many health benefits such increased longevity, improved energy utilization, and protection from reactive oxygen species.
Previously studies have shown that mice and rats fed diets lacking in pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) have reduced mitochondrial content. Therefore, we hypothesized that PQQ can induce mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse hepatocytes.
The ability of PQQ to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis accounts in part for action of this compound and suggests that PQQ may be beneficial in diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction
Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Modulates Mitochondrial Quantity and Function in Mice
1Tracy Stites*, David Storms*, Kathryn Bauerly*, James Mah**, Calliandra Harris*, Andrea Fascetti†, Quinton Rogers†, Eskouhie Tchaparian*, Michael Satre*, and Robert B. Rucker*,2
When pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is added to an amino acid-based, but otherwise nutritionally complete basal diet, it improves growth-related variables in young mice. We examined PQQ and mitochondrial function based on observations that PQQ deficiency results in elevated plasma glucose concentrations in young mice, and PQQ addition stimulates mitochondrial complex 1 activity in vitro. PQQ-deficient weanling mice had a 20–30% reduction in the relative amount of mitochondria in liver; lower respiratory control ratios, and lower respiratory quotients than PQQ-supplemented mice (2 mg PQQ/kg diet). In mice from dams fed a conventional laboratory diet, but switched at weaning to the basal diet, plasma glucose, Ala, Gly, and Ser concentrations were elevated at 4 wk (PQQ− vs. PQQ+), but not at 8 wk. The relative mitochondrial content (ratio of mtDNA to nuclear DNA) also tended (P < 0.18) to be lower (PQQ− vs. PQQ+) at 4 wk, but not at 8 wk. PQQ also counters the mitochondrial complex 1 inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium (DPI). Mice were gavaged with 0, 0.4, or 4 μg PQQ/g body weight (BW) daily for 14 d. At each PQQ level, DPI was injected (i.p.) at 0, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 μg DPI/g BW. The PQQ-deficient mice exposed to 0.4 or 4.0 μg DPI/g lost weight and had lower plasma glucose levels than PQQ-supplemented mice (P < 0.05). In addition, fibroblasts took up 3H-PQQ added to cell cultures, and cultured hepatocytes maintained mitochondrial PQQ concentrations similar to those observed in vivo. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary PQQ can influence mitochondrial amount and function, particularly in perinatal and weanling mice
Exp Ther Med. 2015 August; 10(2): 451–458.
Biological effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone on liver damage in Bmi-1 knockout mice
YUANQING HUANG,1,2 NING CHEN,1 and DENGSHUN MIAO1
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been demonstrated to function as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and subsequently protecting the mitochondria from oxidative stress-induced damage.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PQQ is able to rescue premature senescence in the liver, induced by the deletion of B cell-specific Moloney MLV insertion site-1 (Bmi-1), by inhibiting oxidative stress. In vivo, the mice were allocated into three groups that underwent the following treatment protocols. WT mice received a normal diet, while BKO mice also received a normal diet. An additional group of BKO mice were fed a PQQ-supplemented diet (BKO + PQQ; 4 mg PQQ/kg in the normal diet). The results indicated that PQQ partially rescued the liver damage induced by the deletion of Bmi-1. PQQ was demonstrated to exhibit these therapeutic effects on liver damage through multiple aspects, including the promotion of proliferation, antiapoptotic effects, the inhibition of senescence, the upregulation of antioxidant ability, the downregulation of cell cycle protein expression, the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the reduction of DNA damage. The results of these experiments indicated that treatment of BKO mice with a moderate dose of PQQ significantly protected the liver from deleterious effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and participating in DNA damage repair. Therefore, PQQ has great potential as a therapeutic agent against oxidative stress during liver damage.
Seite des japanischen Herstellers Mitshubishi Gas Chemical von BioPQQ:
Offensichtlich wurde dieser BioPQQ in wissenschaftlichen Studien mehrfach verwendet.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone was discovered as the third coenzyme for oxidoreductases next to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in 1979. In 2003, Researchers of Riken reported the possibility that Pyrroloquinoline quinone is the 14th vitamin in mammals. Pyrroloquinoline quinone has potent anti-oxidative and nerve protective activities. We have established our original manufacturing technology of Pyrroloquinoline quinone by fermentation of bacteria, and put it on the market as a research reagent.
Recently, it was found that Pyrroloquinoline quinone improved memory and learning capacity in rats.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone has great potential as a safe ingredient of dietary supplement for the brain.
Protection of neurons
Regeneration of neurons
Promotion of synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF)
Improvement of memory and learning capacity
NOAEL > 100mg/kg/day (rat, 90-day, oral)
Core batteries of genotoxicity study: Negative
Human clinical study (20 and 60mg/day): No toxicity
Wissenschaftliche Studien mit PQQ: